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Article #    Article Title, Authors & Abstract (Vol. 1, Iss. 4, Sept-2011)           Pages

1.

ANALOG INTEGRATED CIRCUIT DESIGN AND TESTING USING THE FIELD         1-9

PROGRAMMABLE ANALOG ARRAY TECHNOLOGY

Mouna Karmani, Chiraz Khedhiri, Belgacem Hamdi.

ABSTRACT

Due to their reliability, performance and rapid prototyping, programmable logic devices overcome the use of ASICs in the digital system design. However, the similar solution for analog signals was not so easy to find. But the evolutionary trend in Very Large Scale Integrated (VLSI) circuits technologies fuelled by fierce industrial competition to reduce integrated circuits (ICs) cost and time to market has led to design the Field-Programmable Analog Array (FPAA) which is the analog equivalent of the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). In fact, the use of FPAAs reduces the complexity of analog design, decreases the time to market and allows products to be easily updated and improved outside the manufacturing environment. Thus, the reconfigurable feature of FPAAs enables real time updating of analog functions within the system using the Configurable Analog Blocks (CABs) system and appropriate software. In this paper, an interesting analog phase shift detection circuit based on FPAA architecture is presented. In fact, the phase shift detection circuit will distinguish a faulty circuit from a faulty-free one by controlling the phase shift between their corresponding outputs.  The system is practically designed and simulated by using the AN221E04 board which is an Anadigm product. The Circuit validation was carried out using the AnadigmDesigner®2 software.


2.

PROCESS MATURITY ASSESSMENT OF THE NIGERIAN SOFTWARE INDUSTRY    10-23

Kehinde Aregbesola, Babatunde O. Akinkunmi, Olalekan S. Akinola.

ABSTRACT

Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) is a recognized tool for performing software process maturity and capability evaluation in software organizations. Experience with software companies in Nigeria shows that most project management activities do not follow the conventional practices. The study considered the extent to which companies make use of organizational software process in performing their software development activities. The extent to which software products are developed and documented as well as level of adherence to existing organizational software process were studied among Twenty-six (26) selected software companies in Nigeria. The selection criteria were based on: availability of personnel to provide adequate information; size of the development team; how established the companies are; and geographical distribution. Our study revealed that the software companies do not have adequate documentation of their organizational software process, and that most of the companies carry out their software development process by means of implicit in-house methods.


3.

TAKING THE JOURNEY FROM LTE TO LTE-ADVANCED       26-33

Arshed Oudah , Tharek Abd Rahman and Nor Hudah Seman.

ABSTRACT
This paper addresses the main features of the transition from the Long Term Evolution standard (LTE) to its successor Long Term Evolution-Advanced (LTE-A). The specifications of the new release have taken several years and included thousands of temporary documents. The output, thus, would be tens of volumes of details. Turning this number of volumes into a single manuscript is a very useful resource for many researchers. One paper of this length must therefore choose its contents wisely if it has to do more than just scratching the surface of such a complex standard.


4.

DESIGN & DEVELOPMENT OF AUTONOMOUS SYSTEM TO BUILD 3D MODEL       34-39

FOR UNDERWATER OBJECTS USING STEREO VISION TECHNIQUE

N. Satish Kumar, B L Mukundappa, Ramakanth Kumar P.

ABSTRACT
The objective of the paper was to design and development of a stereo vision system to build 3D model for underwater objects.  The developed algorithm first enhance the underwater image quality then construct 3D model by using iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm.  From the enhanced images feature points are extracted and feature based matching was done between these pair of images. Epipolar geometry was constructed to remove the outliers between matched points and to recover the geometrical relation between cameras. Then stereo images were rectified and dense matched. Then 3D point was estimated using linear triangulation.  After the registration of multi-view range images, a 3D model was constructed using a Linear Triangulation technique.


5.

ANALYSIS AND CONTROL OF DOUBLE-INPUT INTEGRATED BUCK-BUCK-       40-46

BOOSTCONVERTER FOR HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES

M.SubbaRao, Ch.Sai Babu, S. Satynarayana.

ABSTRACT
The energy storage unit is one of the most important aspects in structure of hybrid electrical vehicles, since it directly impacts the performance, fuel economy, cost, and weight of the vehicle. In order to fully utilize the advantages of each energy storage device, employment of multi-input power converters is inevitable. In this paper analysis and control of double input integrated buck-buck-boost converter(DIIBBBC) is presented and operating modes are analyzed  . In order to have simple control strategy as well as simpler compensator design a single loop control scheme, voltage-mode and current-limit control, are proposed here for the power distribution. Closed loop converter performance of this converter is simulated in MATLAB/Simulink and results show the performance of the converter.

6.

MACHINE LEARNING APPROACH FOR ANOMALY DETECTION IN       47-61

WIRELESS SENSOR DATA

Ajay Singh Raghuvanshi, Rajeev Tripathi and Sudarshan Tiwari.

ABSTRACT
Wireless sensor nodes can experience faults during deployment either due to its hardware malfunctioning or software failure or even harsh environmental factors and battery failure. This results into presence of anomalies in their time-series collected data. So, these anomalies demand for reliable detection strategies to support in long term and/or in large scale WSN deployments. These data of physical variables are transmitted continuously to a repository for further processing of information as data stream. This paper presents a novel and distributed machine learning approach towards different anomalies detection based on incorporating the combined properties of wavelet and support vector machine (SVM). The time-series filtered data are passed through mother wavelets and several statistical features are extracted. Then features are classified using SVM to detect anomalies as short fault (SF) and noise fault (NF). The results obtained indicate that the proposed approach has excellent performance in fault detection and its classification of WS data.


7.

FEED FORWARD BACK PROPAGATION NEURAL NETWORK METHOD       62-72

FOR ARABIC VOWEL RECOGNITION BASED ON WAVELET LINEAR PREDICTION

CODING

Khalooq Y. Al Azzawi, Khaled Daqrouq.

ABSTRACT

A novel vowel feature extraction method via hybrid wavelet and linear prediction coding (LPC) is presented here. The proposed Arabic vowels recognition system is composed of very promising techniques; wavelet transform (WT) with linear prediction coding (LPC) for feature extraction and feed forward backpropagation neural network (FFBPNN) for classification. Trying to enhance the recognition process and for comparison purposes, three techniques of WT were applied for the feature extraction stage: Wavelet packet transform (WPT) with LPC, discrete wavelet transform (DWT) with LPC, and WP with entropy (WPE). Moreover, different levels of WT were used in order to enhance the efficiency of the proposed method. Level 2 until level 7 were studied.  A MATLAB program was utilised to build the model of the proposed work.  The performance of 82.47% recognition rate was established. The mentioned above   methods were investigated for comparison. The best recognition rate selection obtained was for DWT.


8.

SIMULATION AND ANALYSIS STUDIES FOR A MODIFIED ALGORITHM       73-85

TO IMPROVE TCP IN LONG DELAY BANDWIDTH PRODUCT NETWORKS

Ehab A. Khalil.

ABSTRACT

It is well known that TCP has formed the backbone of the Internet stability and has been well tuned over years. Today the situation has changed, that is because the internetworking environment become more complex than ever, resulting in changes in TCP congestion control are produced and still in progress.  In this paper we use an analytic fluid approach in order to analyze the different features of slow start, traditional swift start, and modified swift start algorithms. We then use simulations to confirm our analytic results which are promising enough.


9.

MULTI-PROTOCOL GATEWAY FOR EMBEDDED SYSTEMS       86-93

B Abdul Rahim and K Soundara Rajan.

ABSTRACT
The embedded systems are highly optimized to perform limited duties of particular needs. They can be control, Process, medical, signal, and image processing applications. The challenges faced by embedded systems are security, real-time, scalability, high availability and also performance based interoperability as more and more different devices are added to the systems. These complex ubiquitous systems are glued together with layers of protocols. Networking of these is a task to look for with minimum flaws in manageability, synchronization and consistency. We have attempted to design a gateway to interconnect UART with SPI, I2C and CAN Protocols. The design can be adopted for various embedded real-time applications and gives the flexibility of protocol selection.


10.

MULTI-CRITERIA ANALYSIS (MCA) FOR EVALUATION OF INTELLIGENT       94-99

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION

Miroslav Haluza and Jan Machacek.

ABSTRACT
Because the electrical installations are nowadays a lot of options and variants, it is necessary to evaluate these complex installation process from several perspectives and objectively. Due to the complexity of evaluation of electrical installation is design a methodology that uses multi-criteria analysis - MCA.

11.

EFFICIENT IMPLEMENTATIONS OF DISCRETE WAVELET TRANSFORMS     100-111

USING FPGAS

D. U. Shah and C. H. Vithlani.

ABSTRACT
 Recently the Wavelet Transform has gained a lot of popularity in the field of signal and image processing. This is due to its capability of providing both time and frequency information simultaneously, hence giving a time-frequency representation of the signal. The traditional Fourier Transform can only provide spectral information about a signal. Moreover, the Fourier method only works for stationary signals. In many real world applications, the signals are non-stationary. One solution for processing non-stationary signals is the Wavelet Transform. Currently, there is tremendous focus on the application of Wavelet Transforms for real-time signal processing. This leads to the demand for efficient architectures for the implementation of Wavelet Transforms. Due to the demand for portable devices and real-time applications, the design has to be realized with very low power consumption and a high throughput. In this paper, different architectures for the Discrete Wavelet Transform filter banks are presented. The architectures are implemented using Field Programmable Gate Array devices. Design criteria such as area, throughput and power consumption are examined for each of the architectures so that an optimum architecture can be chosen based on the application requirements. In our case study, a Daubechies 4-tap orthogonal filter bank and a Daubechies 9/7-tap biorthogonal filter bank are implemented and their results are discussed. Finally, a scalable architecture for the computation of a three-level Discrete Wavelet Transform along with its implementation using the Daubechies length-4 filter banks is presented.


12.

REAL TIME CONTROL OF ELECTRICAL MACHINE AND DRIVES: A REVIEW     112-126

P. M. Menghal and A. Jaya Laxmi.

ABSTRACT
Over the last two decades, the available computer has become both increasingly powerful and affordable. This, in turn, has led to the emergence of highly sophisticated applications that not only enable high-fidelity simulation of dynamic systems but also automatic code generates for implementation in real time control of electric machine-drives. Today, electric drives, power electronic systems and their controls have become more and more complex, and their use is widely increasing in all sectors such as power systems, traction, hybrid vehicles, industrial and home electronics, automotive, naval and aerospace systems, etc. Advances in Microprocessors, Microcomputers, and Microcontrollers such as DSP, FPGA, dSPACE etc. and Power Semiconductor devices have made tremendous impact on performance electric motor drives. Due to advancement of the software tools like MATLAB/SIMULINK with its Real Time Workshop  (RTW) and Real Time Windows Target (RTWT), real time simulators  are used extensively in many engineering fields,  such as industry, education and research institutions. As a result, inclusion of the real time simulation applications in modern engineering provides great help for the researcher and academicians.  An overview of the Real Time Simulations of Electrical Machines Drives is herewith presented which is used in modern engineering practices. This paper discusses various real time simulation techniques such as Real Time Laboratory (RT Lab), Rapid Control Prototyping (RCP) and Hardware in the Loop (HIL) that can be used in modern engineering.


13.

IMPLEMENTATION OF PATTERN RECOGNITION TECHNIQUES AND OVERVIEW  127-137

OF ITS APPLICATIONS IN VARIOUS AREAS OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

S. P. Shinde, V.P.Deshmukh.

ABSTRACT
A pattern is an entity, vaguely defined, that could be given a name, e.g. fingerprint image, handwritten word, human face, speech signal, DNA sequence. Pattern recognition is the study of how machines can observe the environment, learn to distinguish patterns of interest from their background, and make sound and reasonable decisions about the categories of the patterns. The goal of pattern recognition research is to clarify complicated mechanisms of decision making processes and automatic these function using computers. Pattern recognition systems can be designed using the following main approaches: template matching, statistical methods, syntactic methods and neural networks. This paper reviews Pattern Recognition, Process, Design Cycle, Application, Models etc. This paper focuses on Statistical method of pattern Recognition.


14.

ANALYTICAL CLASSIFICATION OF MULTIMODAL IMAGE REGISTRATION     138-147

BASED ON MEDICAL APPLICATION

Mohammad Reza Keyvanpour & Somayeh Alehojat.

ABSTARCT
In the last two decades, computerized image registration has played an important role in medical imaging. One of the important aspects of image registration is multimodal image registration, where is used in many medical applications such as diagnosis, treatment planning, computer guided surgery.
Not specified the relationship between the intensity values of corresponding pixels, the difference between images contrast in some areas than other areas, mapping the intensity values in an image to multiple intensity value in other images, are challenging problems in multimodal image registration. Due to importance of image registration in medical, identification this challenges seem necessary. This paper will have a comprehensive analysis on several types of multimodal image registration methods and will express its affect on medical images. To reach this goal, each method will investigate according to its affect on the field of medical imaging and challenges facing each method will evaluate analytically. So that recognition these challenges play an effective role in choosing an appropriate registration method.


15.

OVERVIEW OF SPACE-FILLING CURVES AND THEIR APPLICATIONS IN     148-154

SCHEDULING

Mir Ashfaque Ali and S. A. Ladhake.

ABSTRACT

Space-filling Curves (SFCs) have been extensively used as a mapping from the multi-dimensional space into the one-dimensional space. A space-filling curve (SFC) maps the multi-dimensional space into the one-dimensional space. Mapping the multi-dimensional space into one-dimensional domain plays an important role in every application that involves multidimensional data. Modules that are commonly used in multi-dimensional applications include searching, scheduling, spatial access methods, indexing and clustering. Space-filling curves are adopted to define a linear order for sorting and scheduling objects that lie in the multi-dimensional space. Space filling curves as the basis for scheduling has numerous advantages, scalability in terms of the number of scheduling parameters, ease of code development and maintenance. This paper elaborates the space-filling curves and their applicability in scheduling, especially in transaction and disk scheduling in advanced databases.

16.

COMPACT OMNI-DIRECTIONAL PATCH ANTENNA FOR S-BAND FREQUENCY      155-159

SPECTRA

P. A. Ambresh, P. M. Hadalgi and P. V. Hunagund.

ABSTRACT
This paper presents a novel design of a microstrip patch antenna with compact nature and the study of various antenna parameters to suit the applications such as WiMax operating in the frequency range of 3.3 – 3.5 GHz and in other applications like fixed satellite services, maritime mobile services etc. covering 2 - 4 GHz of S-band frequency spectra. It is experimental observed that by placing stubs on the patch with air filled dielectric medium, the resonant frequency of the antenna can be lowered by a considerable amount resulting in compactness. Proposed antenna can be used as a compact antenna system where limited size is a requirement. Measurement results showed the satisfactory performance over S-band frequency spectra with the improved antenna parameters. Details of the antenna design procedure and results are discussed and presented.

17.

REDUCING TO FAULT ERRORS IN COMMUNICATION CHANNELS SYSTEMS     160-167

Shiv Kumar Gupta and Rajiv Kumar.

ABSTRACT
In this paper we introduce error-control techniques for improving the error-rate performance that is delivered to an application in situations where the inherent error rate of a digital transmission system is unacceptable. The acceptability of a given level of bit error rate depends on the particular application. For examples, certain types of digital speech transmission are tolerant to fairly high bit error rates. Other types of applications such as electronic funds transfer require essentially error-free transmission. For example, FEC is used in the satellite and deep-space communications. A recent application is in audio CD recordings where FEC is used to provide tremendous robustness to errors so that clear sound reproduction is possible even in the presence of smudges and scratches on the disk surface.

18.

SPACE VECTOR BASED VARIABLE DELAY RANDOM PWM ALGORITHM     168-178

FOR DIRECT TORQUE CONTROL OF INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVE FOR

HARMONIC REDUCTION

P. Nagasekhar Reddy, J. Amarnath, P. Linga Reddy.

ABSTRACT

The conventional SVPWM algorithm gives good performance for control of induction motor drive, but it produces more acoustical noise resulting in increased total harmonics distortion.  The random pulse width modulation (RPWM) techniques has become an established means for mitigation of undesirable side effects in PWM converters, the use of voltage source inverters in adjustable speed ac drives in particular. Hence, to minimize these anomalies of the drive, this paper presents a novel variable delay random pulse width modulation (VDRPWM) algorithm with constant switching frequency for direct torque controlled induction motor drive. The Simplicity of this technique is its easy implementation and requires only low-end processors. The conventional VDRPWM preserves both the quality switching of the conventional space-vector PWM (SVPWM) method and minimized harmonic mitigation of the variable switching frequency PWM technique. To validate the proposed conventional VDRPWM algorithm for the considered drive, simulation studies have been carried out and results are presented. The simulation results confirmed the feasibility of proposed VDRPWM algorithm strategy in terms of acoustical noise and harmonic distortion as compared with conventional DTC and SVPWM based induction motor drive.

19.

SOFTWARE AGENT’S DECISION MAKING APPROACH BASED ON     179-188

GAME THEORY

Anju Rathi, Namita Khurana, Akshatha. P. S, Pooja Rani.

ABSTRACT

This paper highlights the use of software agent which is capable of perceiving its environment and performs its own operations without any other explicit instruction.  The main objective of this paper is to investigate the possibility how to make the decision making capability of an Expert system more accurate and successful goal-oriented. This is done with the use of a utility measurement which is explained in a given example. It helps the agent to take a decision quicker so goal will be achieved.

20.

CALCULATION OF POWER CONSUMPTION IN 7 TRANSISTOR SRAM CELL     189-194

USING CADENCE TOOL

Shyam Akashe, Ankit Srivastava, Sanjay Sharma.

ABSTRACT
In this paper a new 7T SRAM is proposed. CMOS SRAM Cell is very less power consuming and have very less read and write time. In proposed SRAM an additional write bit line balancing circuitry is added in 6T SRAM for power reduction. A seven Transistor (7T) cell at 45 nm Technology is proposed to accomplish improvement in stability, power dissipation and performance compared with previous designs. Simulation result of proposed design using CADENCE TOOL shows the reduction in total average power consumption.

21.

REFRACTOMETRIC FIBER OPTIC ADULTERATION LEVEL DETECTOR FOR     195-203

DIESEL

S. S. Patil & A. D. Shaligram.

ABSTRACT
Adulteration of diesel with kerosene is common malpractice since kerosene is cheaper than diesel. Such adulteration results in increased pollution, reduced lifetime of components, decrease in engine or machine performance etc. This paper presents a simple, extrinsic intensity modulated fiber optic sensor for determining adulteration of diesel by kerosene. The sensing principle is based on variation in reflected light intensity due to change in the refractive index of adulterated diesel. A parallel two fiber sensor probe consisting transmitting fiber and receiving fiber with a reflector is used as a sensor. An adulterated diesel is considered as a medium between sensor probe and reflector.
A prototype is fabricated and tested in laboratory for different levels of adulteration of diesel by kerosene.. The sensor is useful due to its simple construction, operation, safety with inflammable fuels and the possibility of making it compact and portable for in-situ measurements.  Micro-controller is used for incorporating totally automatic and adding further sophistication in final display so that it is more useful to layman i.e. society. Thus inexpensive and portable adulteration level detector is proposed.

22.

SYSTEM FOR DOCUMENT SUMMARIZATION USING GRAPHS IN TEXT     204-211

MINING

Prashant D. Joshi, M. S. Bewoor, S. H. Patil.

ABSTRACT

Summarization of text documents is increasingly important with the amount of data available on the Internet. The large majority of current approaches view documents as linear sequences of words and create query-independent summaries. However, ignoring the structure of the document degrades the quality of summaries. Furthermore, the popularity of web search engines requires query specific summaries. Here one method is used to create query-specific summaries by adding structure to documents by extracting associations between their fragments. This paper has practically implemented graph method for text mining and accordingly documents summary is generated. This system is developed using java programming language and ORACLE. Here text files are stored at particular drive and document graph of each text file is generated by using IR ranking algorithms. When input query is entered it is checked on document graph using summarization algorithm. Summary of matching text files will be displayed as an output. Various results are taken and this system can be implemented in desktop, network environment for accessing files within a short period of time .further new algorithm like top 1 expanding search algorithm can be added to improve the performance of this system.

23.

ADAPTIVE NEURO-FUZZY SPEED CONTROLLER FOR HYSTERESIS     212-223

CURRENT CONTROLLED PMBLDC MOTOR DRIVE

V M Varatharaju and B L Mathur.

ABSTRACT
 
The paper presents a methodology for developing adaptive speed controllers in a permanent-magnet brushless DC (BLDC) motor drive system. A proportional-integral controller is employed in order to obtain the controller parameters at each selected load. The resulting data from PI controller are used to train adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS) that could deduce the controller parameters at any other loading condition within the same region of operation. The ANFIS controller is tested at numerous operating conditions with hysteresis current controlled position determination. Paper also provides MATLAB developed PMBLDC motor model and simulation of PI speed controller in comparison with ANFIS controller. The BLDC motor drive system with PI controller exhibits higher overshoot and settling time when compared to the designed ANFIS controller.

24.

A MODIFIED HOPFIELD NEURAL NETWORK METHOD FOR EQUALITY     224-235

CONSTRAINED STATE ESTIMATION

S.Sundeep, G. MadhusudhanaRao.

ABSTRACT
Electric power system is a highly complex and non linear system. Its analysis and control in real time environment requires highly sophisticated computational skills. Computations are reaching a limit as far as conventional computer based algorithms are concerned. It is therefore required to find out newer methods which can be easily implemented on dedicated hardware. It is a very difficult task due to complexity of the power system with all its interdependent variables, thus making the neural networks one of the better options for the solution of different issues in operation and control. In this project an attempt has been made to implement ANN’s for State Estimation. A Hopfield neural network model has been developed to test Topological Observability of Power System and it is tested on two different test systems. The results so obtained, are comparable with those results of conventional root based observability determination technique. Further a Hopfield model has been developed to determine State Estimation of power system. State Estimation of 6 bus and IEEE 14 bus system is attempted using this Hopfield neural network.

25.

DEPLOYMENT ISSUES OF sBGP, soBGP AND psBGP:A COMPARATIVE     236-243

ANALYSIS

Naasir Kamaal Khan, Gulabchand K. Gupta, Z.A. Usmani.

ABSTRACT
Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is the protocol backing the core routing decisions on the Internet. It maintains a table of IP networks or 'prefixes' which designate network reachability among autonomous systems (AS). Point of concern in BGP is its lack of effective security measures which makes Internet vulnerable to different forms of attacks. Many solutions have been proposed till date to combat BGP security issues but not a single one is deployable in practical scenario. Any security proposal with optimal solution should offer adequate security functions, performance overhead and deployment cost. This paper critically analyzes the deployment issues of best three proposals considering trade-off between security functions and performance overhead.

26.

A SOFTWARE REVERSE ENGINEERING METHODOLOGY FOR LEGACY     244-248

MODERNIZATION

Oladipo Onaolapo Francisca1 and Anigbogu Sylvanus Okwudili.

ABSTRACT
This paper identified that Legacy Systems have embedded within them, a large investment which ranges from low level code items or objects through to higher level business objects; made by the systems developers and/or owners. Most organizations would at one time or the other be confronted with the problem of migrating their legacy applications to new platforms in order to preserve previous investments and the software engineering community had been confronted with the problem of understanding legacy systems. A reverse engineering methodology for modernization of legacy systems based on a transformation paradigm aimed at preserving capital investments and saving production and maintenance costs were described in this paper.  The transformation approach involved retaining and extending the value of the investments on the legacy system through migration and modernization of the subject system.

27.

OPTIMUM POWER LOSS IN EIGHT POLE RADIAL MAGNETIC     249-261

BEARING USING GA

Santosh Shelke and Rapur Venkata Chalam.

ABSTRACT
This paper includes principle of working and design of eight pole active magnetic journal bearing (AMJB). A study of eight pole magnetic bearing design is done for peak load carrying capacity and with this condition stator dimensions, coil dimensions are obtained for finding different stator and rotor losses like copper loss, eddy current loss hysteresis loss, wind age loss . Also it includes study of these various stator and rotor losses with equations, loss dominating parameters. The objective function for optimum total energy loss is considered for four variables such as air gap length, magnetic flux density, rotor speed, lamination thickness. Suitable constraints and bounds are chosen for each loss and optimal loss is calculated using single objective genetic algorithm.

28.

REAL TIME ANPR FOR VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION USING NEURAL NETWORK     262-268

Subhash Tatale and Akhil Khare.

ABSTRACT
This paper deals with problematic from field of artificial intelligence, machine vision and neural networks  in  construction  of  an  automatic  number  plate  recognition  system  (ANPR).  This paper includes brief introduction of automatic number plate recognition, which ensure a process of number plate detection, processes of proper characters segmentation, normalization and recognition. Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR) is a real time embedded system which automatically recognizes the license number of vehicles. In this paper, the task of recognizing number plate is considered. First the image of number plate is captured by camera. Number plate is segmented by using horizontal and vertical projection. After that feature extraction techniques are used to extract the characters from segmented data. Neural Network algorithms are used to recognize the characters which improve the color and brightness. ANPR project is very much useful in applications like,
automated traffic surveillance and tracking system, automated high-way/parking toll collection systems, automation of petrol stations, travelling time monitoring.. In this paper, introduction of number   plate segmentation, feature extraction, recognition of character based on Neural Network and syntax checking analysis of recognized characters is described.

29.

AN EFFICIENT FRAMEWORK FOR CHANNEL CODING IN HIGH SPEED LINKS     269-277

Paradesi Leela Sravanthi & K. Ashok Babu.

ABSTRACT

This paper explores the benefit of channel coding for high-speed backplane or chip to chip interconnects, referred to as the high-speed links. Although both power constrained and bandwidth- limited, the high-speed links need to support data rates in the Gbps range at low error probabilities. Modeling the high-speed link as a communication system with noise and inter symbol interference (ISI), this work identifies three operating regimes based on the underlying dominant error mechanisms. The resulting framework is used to identify the conditions under which standard error control codes perform optimally, incur an impractically large overhead, or provide the optimal performance in the form of a single parity check code. For the regime where the standard error control codes are impractical, this thesis introduces low complexity block codes, termed pattern-eliminating codes (PEC), which achieve a potentially large performance improvement over channels with residual ISI. The codes are systematic, require no decoding and allow for simple encoding. They can also be additionally endowed with a (0, n - 1) run-length-limiting property. The simulation results show that the simplest PEC can provide error-rate reductions of several orders of magnitude, even with rate penalty taken into account. It is also shown that channel conditioning, such as equalization, can have a large effect on the code performance and potentially large gains can be derived from optimizing the equalizer jointly with a pattern-eliminating code. Although the performance of a pattern-eliminating code is given by a closed- form expression, the channel memory and the low error rates of interest render accurate simulation of standard error-correcting codes impractical.

30

TRANSITION METAL CATALYZED/NaBH4/MeOH REDUCTION OF NITRO,     278-282

CARBONYL, AROMATICS TO HYDROGENATED PRODUCTS AT ROOM

TEMPERATURE

Ateeq Rahman and Salem S Al Deyab.

ABSTRACT
Reduction of nitrobenzene, 4-ethyl nitrobenzene, 4-isopropyl nitrobenzene, 4-nitro 1-phenyl acetate, acetophenone, with CuCl2/MeOH/NaBH4 provided hydrogenated products in quantitative yields. In order to evaluate the best catalytic systems various transition metal catalysts were examined for the first time and CuCl2 catalysts was superactive system. And a solvent system was also studied with methanol being the best solvent evolved. The reactions were exceedingly clean with no byproduct formation, negating the need for further purification. Most reactions provided moderate to excellent yields.

31.

PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF TWO ON-DEMANDS ROUTING PROTOCOLS  283-289

FOR MOBILE AD-HOC NETWORKS

Prem Chand and Deepak Kumar.

ABSTRACT
Mobile Ad-hoc networks are the collection of mobile nodes connected by a wireless link, where each node acts as a router. Ad-hoc networks are characterized by a lack of infrastructure, and by a random and quickly changing network topology: thus the need for a robust dynamic routing protocol that can accommodate such an environment. In addition to this routing protocols face many challenges like short battery backup, limited processing capability. Two protocols AODV and DSR have compared in terms of number of routes selected, number of hop counts, number of RREQ packets and number of RREP packets. Simulation results shows that AODV compared with DSR reduces the number of hop count nodes, we will also see that AODV has less number of routes as compare to DSR, which helps AODV to be more efficient and less bulky. While comparing route request packets AODV is again better with good some of packets which made it more efficient in finding a new route and each time in replacing a stale link.

32.

CROSS-LAYER BASED QOS ROUTING PROTOCOL ANALYSIS BASED ON     290-298

NODES FOR 802.16 WIMAX NETWORKS

A.Maheswara Rao, S.Varadarajan, M.N.Giri Prasad.

ABSTRACT

A cross-layer framework to favor the video-on-demand service in multi-hop WiMax mesh networks. . This will guarantee that the required data rate is achieved for video streams, which is crucial for multimedia streaming applications. An efficient and light-weight multicast routing technique is also proposed to minimize the bandwidth cost of joining a multicast tree Cross-layer design for quality of service (QoS) in WiMax has attracted much research interest recently. The research on traditional cross- layered architecture which has served well for wired networks seems to be inefficient and not suitable for the wireless networks. Most of the cross-layer design proposals for wireless networks involve exchanging information between multiple layers or between just two layers. In this paper, we propose to develop a Cross-Layer Based QoS Routing (CLBQR) Protocol for 802.16 WiMAX Networks. In our protocol, the cross layer routing is based on the routing metrics which includes power, link quality and end-to-end delay. Then the routing is performed by estimating the combined cost value of these metrics. By simulation results, we show that our proposed protocol achieves higher packet delivery ratio with reduced energy consumption and delay.

33.

UNIT COSTS ESTIMATION IN SUGAR PLANT USING MULTIPLE REGRESSION    299-306

LEAST SQUARES METHOD

Samsher Kadir Sheikh and Manik Hapse.

ABSTRACT

Co-generation is the concept of producing two forms of energy from one fuel. One of the forms of energy must always be heat and the other may be electricity or mechanical energy. In a co-generation plant a method for establishing unit costs of delivered steam and electrical energy is presented. This method employs the use of multiple regression least squares, based on a linear model of electrical energy generation and delivered steam as functions of generated boiler steam. The model is based on a plant design that allows steam to be extracted from between stages of the generating turbines at a reduced pressure to be used to serve heating loads. A discussion of the accuracy of the method is presented as well as an example of the use of the method using one year of Sonai sugar plant production.

34.

ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK AND NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF THE HEAT     307-314

REGENERATIVE CYCLE IN POROUS MEDIUM ENGINE

Udayraj, A. Ramaraju.

ABSTRACT
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines offers lot of advantages over the conventional Internal Combustion Engines. The disadvantages of HCCI such as high HC and CO emissions can be reduced significantly by applying the concept of porous medium combustion. Porous Medium (PM) Engines are the revolutionary concept that is proposed to overcome the disadvantages of HCCI Engines. In this paper numerical analysis of Thermodynamic model of heat regenerative cycle of PM Engine is performed and the effect of various parameters like expansion ratio, initial temperature and maximum temperature are analyzed in efficiency. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is used topredict the performance of PM Engine and the results are compared with the corresponding values of outputs obtained by Numerical analysis.


35.

HYBRID TRANSACTION MANAGEMENT IN DISTRIBUTED REAL-TIME     315-321

DATABASE SYSTEM

Gyanendra Kumar Gupta, A. K. Sharma and Vishnu Swaroop.

ABSTRACT
Managing the transactions in real time distributed computing system is not easy, as it has heterogeneously networked computers to solve a single problem.  If a transaction runs across some different sites, it may commit at some sites and may failure at another site, leading to an inconsistent transaction. The complexity is increase in real time applications by placing deadlines on the response time of the database system and transactions processing. Such a system needs to process transactions before these deadlines expired. A series of simulation study have been performed to analyze the performance under different transaction management under conditions such as different workloads, distribution methods, execution mode-distribution and parallel etc. The scheduling of data accesses are done in order to meet their deadlines and to minimize the number of transactions that missed deadlines. A new concept is introduced to manage the transactions in “hybrid transaction management” rather than static and dynamic ways setting computing parameters. This will keep the track of the status of mix transaction static as well as dynamic so that we can improve the performance of the system with the advantages of static as well as dynamic.

36.

A FAST PARTIAL IMAGE ENCRYPTION SCHEME WITH WAVELET     322-331

TRANSFORM AND RC4

Sapna Sasidharan and Deepu Sleeba Philip.

ABSTRACT
Encryption is used to securely transmit data in open networks. Each type of data has its own features; therefore different techniques should be used to protect confidential image data from unauthorized access. In this paper, a fast partial image encryption scheme using Discrete Wavelet Transform with RC4 Stream Cipher is done. In this method, the approximation matrix (lowest frequency band) is encrypted using the stream cipher as it holds most of the image’s information. The encryption time is reduced by encrypting only the part of the image and maintains a high level of security by shuffling the rest of the image using the shuffling algorithm. Selective encryption is a recent approach to reduce the computational requirements for huge volumes of images.

37.

IMPROVE SIX-SIGMA MANAGEMENT BY FORECASTING PRODUCTION     332-342

QUANTITY USING IMAGE VERIFICATION QUALITY TOOL

M.S. Ibrahim, M.A.R.Mansour and A.M. Abed.

ABSTRACT

With the emergence of a business era that embraces changes as one of its major characteristics, manufacturing success and survival are becoming more and more difficult to ensure. The emphasis is on adaptability to changes in the business environment and on addressing market and customer needs proactively. Changes in the business environment due to varying needs of the customers lead to uncertainty in the decision for requirements from supplier. Flexibility is needed in the value stream map (VSM) to counter the uncertainty in the decision for requirements from supplier. VSM adapts the changes if it is flexible and agile in nature. In this paper a model is presented, which encapsulates the market sensitiveness, process integration, information driver and flexibility measures of VSM demands from supplier and grantee customer requirements. The model was addressed validation to preventive and verification to corrective (VPVC) that is a concept within six-sigma definition. (VPVC) depends on the systematic investigation of discrepancies (failures / deviations) which must be applied in lean six- sigma environment that adopt one piece flow layout.  The model is consists of two phases, the first phase is a mathematical model explores the relationship among customer demand, quality, and service level and the leanness and agility of VSM in fast moving consumer goods.  The second phase is a quality assurance process of establishing evidence that provides a high degree of preventive that a product involves acceptance of fitness for purpose with customers'. The paper concludes with the justifications of the system input, which depends on the effect of the jerky demand of the market with high quality specification.

38.

OPTIMAL PATH FOR MOBILE AD-HOC NETWORKS USING REACTIVE     343-348

ROUTING PROTOCOL

Akshatha. P. S, Namita Khurana, Anju Rathi.

ABSTRACT
Reactive protocols don’t maintain routing information or routing activity at the network nodes if there is no communication. Reactive protocols determine a route to some destination only when somebody wants to send a packet to that destination. The route discovery usually occurs by flooding the route request packets throughout the mobile ad-hoc networks. Our approach is using reverse route calculation in RRQ packets and reverse route calculation in RRP packets to obtain optimal path communication between sender nodes to destination node for mobile ad-hoc networks.

39.

POWER QUALITY RELATED APPROACH IN SPACE VECTOR CONVERTER     349-355

S. Debdas, M.F.Quereshi, D.Chandrakar and D.Pansari.

ABSTRACT
A cycloconverter is a power electronics device used to convert constant frequency AC power to adjustable voltage adjustable frequency AC power without any DC link. Cycloconverter inject significant harmonics and non-standard frequency components like inter harmonics (i.e., non integer multiples of power frequency) into power systems. The impact of cycloconverter on power quality is studied, and the relation between power quality indices and cycloconverter control strategies are developed. Control strategies based on the switching sequence SVPWM (i.e., space vector pulse width modulation). Control strategies are proposed to minimize the power quality impact of the converters. An innovative wavelet filter concepts are illustrated with the help of wavelet transform tool to recognize the power quality.

40.

SEARCH RESULT CLUSTERING FOR WEB PERSONALIZATION                 356-363

Kavita D. Satokar, A. R. Khare.

ABSTRACT
The main problem faced by the users of web search today is the quality and the amount of the results they get back. The results frustrate a user and consume his precious time. Existing search engines perform keyword based searches without taking into account the user intent and semantics of the user query. Hence to improve searching in the WWW, a new personalized search index provides a conceptual relation between the search keywords and the pages, which matches the user’s information need. The proposed approach aims to mine a reduced set of effective search result for enhancing the searching experience. In this project, we propose and build a personalized 2D web search model. We store and maintain user’s long-term dynamic profile based on user search and use it to personalize. We use ontology at client side to solve the cold start problem and expand the query and generate clusters of similar results. We store client’s profile as a weighted ontology tree. We use web search results from an existing search engine and re-rank them based on client’s profile.

41.

HIGH PERFORMANCE COMPUTING AND VIRTUAL NETWORKING IN THE     364-373

AREA OF BIOMETRICS

Jadala Vijaya, Chandra, Roop Singh Thakur, Mahesh Kumar Thota.

ABSTRACT

Virtual networking is an important step in the evolution of data networks. The key idea of network virtualization is to build a diversified Internet to support a variety of network services and architectures through a shared substrate. Pattern Recognition is the process of establishing a close match between some new stimulus and previously stored stimulus patterns. This Paper describes the necessity of biometric systems for Network Data and Information Security, Role of virtual LAN’s in supporting the error free security system. An Attempt is made to use the finger print of an individual for accessing the secured network. On an experimental basis, a biometric attendance system of staff and students of college is done to test and validate the working of the designed algorithm using Cellular Neural Network. Designing of algorithm using Cellular Neural Network to carry out the front end software, Backend software to implement in the Virtual network and implemented on digital Signal Processor (DSP). Ideal finger implemented on Digital Signal Processor (DSP). Ideal finger print data was considered for analysis without any error.

42.

STATUS AND ROLE OF ICT IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION TO BUILD DIGITAL  374-383

SOCIETY IN BANGLADESH: PERSPECTIVE OF A DIVISIONAL CITY, KHULNA

Anupam Kumar Bairagi, S. A. Ahsan Rajon and Tuhin Roy.

ABSTRACT
Education is one of the main keys to economic development and improvements in human welfare. As global competition grows sharper, education becomes an important source of competitive advantage and appears to be one of the key determinants of standardization of life. Information and communication technology (ICT) is playing a central role in the development of modern economies and societies. As the world is going through the technological revolution, adoption of new technologies in the education system is the most important. This has profound implications for education, both because ICT can facilitate new forms of learning and because it has become important for young people to master ICT in preparation for adult life. The use of ICT has the potential to enhance the real world experiences, the educational institutions should emphasize on the use of ICT for both administrative and academic efficiency. This study investigates current status of ICT in educational institutions and educational organization related activities and provides comprehensive recommendations to build a digital society in Bangladesh in the near future.

43.

PIECEWISE VECTOR QUANTIZATION APPROXIMATION FOR EFFICIENT     384-387

SIMILARITY ANALYSIS OF TIME SERIES IN DATA MINING

Pushpendra Singh Sisodia, Ruchi Davey, Naveen Hemrajani, Savita Shivani.

ABSTRACT
Efficiently searching for similarities among time series and discovering interesting patterns is an important and non-trivial problem with applications in many domains. The high dimensionality of the data makes the analysis very challenging. To solve this problem, many dimensionality reduction methods have been proposed. PCA (Piecewise Constant Approximation) and its variant have been shown efficient in time series indexing and similarity retrieval. However, in certain applications, too many false alarms introduced by the approximation may reduce the overall performance dramatically. In this paper, we introduce a new piecewise dimensionality reduction technique that is based on Vector Quantization. The new technique, PVQA (Piecewise Vector Quantized Approximation), partitions each sequence into equi-length segments and uses vector quantization to represent each segment by the closest (based on a distance metric) code word from a codebook of key-sequences. The efficiency of calculations is improved due to the significantly lower dimensionality of the new representation. We demonstrate the utility and efficiency of the proposed technique on real and simulated datasets. By exploiting prior knowledge about the data, the proposed technique generally outperforms PCA and its variants in similarity searches.

44.

DESIGN AND MODELING OF TRAVELLING WAVE ELECTRODE ON     388-394

ELECTROABSORPTION MODULATOR BASED ON ASYMMETRIC INTRA-STEP

-BARRIER COUPLED DOUBLE STRAINED QUANTUM WELLS ACTIVE LAYER

Kambiz Abedi.

ABSTRACT
In this paper, a travelling wave electroabsorption modulators (TWEAMs) based on asymmetric intra- step-barrier coupled double strained quantum wells (AICD-SQW) active layer is designed and analyzed at 1.55 ìm for the first time. The AICD-SQW structure has advantages such as very low insertion loss, zero chirp, large Stark shift and high extinction ratio in comparison with the intra-step quantum well (IQW) structure. For this purpose, the influence of the electrode width and ground metal separation on their transmission line microwave properties (microwave index, microwave loss, and characteristic impedance) and modulation bandwidth are analyzed.

45.

POWER SYSTEM STABILITY IMPROVEMENT USING FACTS WITH EXPERT     395-404

SYSTEMS

G.Ramana, B. V. Sanker Ram.

ABSTRACT
This paper presents exhaustive review of various concept of voltage instability, main causes of voltage instability, classification of voltage stability, dynamic and static voltage stability analysis techniques, modeling, shortcomings, in power systems environments. It also reviews various current techniques/methods for analysis of voltage stability in power systems through all over world. This paper presents a comprehensive review on the research and developments in the power system stability enhancement using FACTS damping controllers. Several technical issues related to FACTS installations have been highlighted and performance comparison of different FACTS controllers has been discussed. In addition, some of the utility experience, real-world installations, and semiconductor technology development have been reviewed and summarized. Applications the EPS equipped with a decentralized modular secondary voltage and reactive power control based on artificial neural network (ANN) is presented. The ANNs were trained on optimal power flows (OPF).

46.

IMPROVEMENT OF DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE OF THREE-AREA THERMAL     405-412

SYSTEM UNDER DEREGULATED ENVIRONMENT USING HVDC LINK

T. Anil Kumar, N. Venkata Ramana.

ABSTRACT
This paper presents an analysis on dynamic performance of a three-area thermal system interconnected with HVDC links when subjected to parametric uncertainties. In this paper all the three areas consists of thermal power plants. The HVDC link is used as a system interconnection between all the three areas. Open transmission access and the evolution of more socialised companies for generation, transmission and distribution affects the formulation of Automatic Generation Control (AGC) problem. So, the traditional three area system is modified to take into account the effect of bilateral contracts on the dynamics.  It has been observed that the dynamic response of three-area interconnected thermal plants through tie-line is sluggish and degraded when compared to the dynamic response of three area interconnected thermal power plants connected through a DC link.

47. VOLTAGE SECURITY IMPROVEMENT USING FUZZY LOGIC SYSTEMS     413-421
G.Ramana, B. V. Sanker Ram.

ABSTRACT
This paper presents a new approach using fuzzy bet theory for voltage and reactive power control of power systems. The predication of steady state voltage stability conditions in a transmission network. The voltage stability is checked by formulating an L and the corresponding uncertainties input parameters are efficiently modeled in terms of fuzzy sets by using triangular membership function. The proposed technique will be highly useful to ensure voltage security of power system by predicting the nearness of voltage collapse with respect to the existing load condition. The approach translates violation level of buses voltage and controlling ability of controlling devices into fuzzy set notations using linearized model. A modified IEEE 30-bus test system is used to demonstrate the application of the proposed approach. Simulation result shows that the approach is efficient and has good flexibility and adaptability for voltage-reactive power control.

48. EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE OF SYNTHESIS ON X-RAY, IR PROPERTIES             422-429
OF MG-ZN FERRITES PREPARED BY OXALATE CO-PRECIPITATION METHOD
S.S. Khot, N. S. Shinde, B.P. Ladgaonkar, B.B. Kale and S.C. Watawe

ABSTRACT
The magnetic properties of Mg1-xZnxFe2O4 (where x = 0.3,0.4,0.5,0.6) ferrites have been studied. Magnesium Zinc Ferrites was synthesized by oxalate co-precipitation method at different synthesis temperature and characterized by X-ray diffraction and far IR absorption techniques, scanning Electron microscopy .Far infrared absorption spectra show two significant absorption bands ,first at about 600 cm -1 and second at about  425 cm –1,which were respectively attributed to tetrahedral (A) and octahedral (B) sites of the spinel .The positions of the bands are found to be composition dependent and dependent on the temperature of synthesis. The force constants KT and K0 were calculated and plotted against zinc concentration and temperature of synthesis. Composition dependent of force constants is explained on the basis of cation-oxygen bond distances of respective sites and cation distribution
.

49. AN IMPROVED ENERGY EFFICIENT MEDIUM ACCESS CONTROL     430-436
PROTOCOL FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS
K. P. Sampoornam, K. Rameshwaran

ABSTRACT
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) constitute a special class of wireless data communication networks. In wireless sensor networks, sensor nodes are randomly deployed. Since the sensor nodes are required to operate under remote conditions without fresh supply of power to replenish itself, energy conservation becomes the major constraint. This necessitates the design of WSNs with the capability of prolonging the lifetime of network. To achieve minimum energy consumption, several MAC protocols have already proposed. This paper aims to survey and analyze the most energy efficient medium access control protocols and to compare their performances. Further, this paper proposes a new MAC protocol based on Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM).In ELE-MAC protocol, by employing OFDMA the energy consumption of the node can be minimized.

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