International Journal of Advances in Engineering & Technology
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    1.

APPLICATION OF SMES UNIT TO IMPROVE THE VOLTAGE PROFILE OF      1-13

THE SYSTEM WITH DFIG DURING GRID DIP AND SWELL

A. M. Shiddiq Yunus, A. Abu-Siada and M. A. S. Masoum

Abstract
One of the most important parameters of the system where wind turbine generators (WTGs) are connected is voltage profile at the point of common coupling (PCC). In the earlier stage, WTGs were possible to be disconnected from the system to avoid the damage of WTGs. Following the rapid injection of WTGs to the existing network during last decades, the transmission line operators (TSOs) require WTGs to stay connected in certain level of fault to continue support the grid. This new requirements have been compiled in new international grid codes. In this paper, superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) is applied to improve the voltage profile of PCC bus where WTGs equipped with doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) is connected to meet the used gird codes of Spain and German during grid dip and swell. The voltage dip at the grid side is examined to comply with the low voltage ride through (LVRT) while the voltage swell at the grid side is examined to comply with the high voltage ride through (HVRT) of both Spain and German voltage ride through (VRT).


    2.

HYBRID MODEL FOR SECURING E-COMMERCE TRANSACTION    14-20

Abdul Monem S. Rahma, Rabah N. Farhan, Hussam J. Mohammad

Abstract
The requirements for securing e-commerce transaction are privacy, authentication, integrity maintenance and non-repudiation. These are the crucial and significant issues in recent times for trade which are transacted over the internet through e-commerce channels. In this paper suggest cipher method that is improves the Diffie-Hellman key exchange by using truncated polynomial in discrete logarithm problem ( DLP ) to increases the complexity of this method over unsecured channel, also combines the hashing algorithm of MD5, the symmetric key algorithm of AES and the asymmetric key algorithm of Modification of Diffie-Hellman (MDH).


    3.

DSSS DIGITAL TRANSCEIVER DESIGN FOR ULTRA WIDEBAND    21-29.

Mohammad Shamim Imtiaz

Abstract
Despite the fact ultra-wideband technology has been around for over 30 years, there is a newfound excitement about its potential for communications. In this paper we are specifically focused on a software radio transceiver design for impulse-based UWB with the ability to transmit a raw data rate of 100 Mbps yet encompass the adaptability of a reconfigurable digital receiver. Direct sequence spread spectrum has become the modulation method of choice for wireless local area networks, because it’s numerous advantages such as jammer suppression, code division multiple access and ease of implementation. We also observe its characteristics and complete the modulation techniques with MATLAB Simulink. The latter includes bit error rate testing for variety of modulation schemes and wireless channels using pilot-based matched filter estimation techniques. Ultimately, the transceiver design demonstrates the advantage and challenge of UWB technology while boasting high data rate communication capability and providing the flexibility of a research test bed.


    4.

INTRODUCTION TO METASEARCH ENGINES AND RESULT MERGING    30-40

STRATEGIES: A SURVEY

Hossein Jadidoleslamy

Abstract
MetaSearch is utilizing multiple other search systems to perform simultaneous search. A MetaSearch Engine (MSE) is a search system that enables MetaSearch. To perform a MetaSearch, user query is sent to multiple search engines; once the search results returned, they are received by the MSE, then merged into a single ranked list and the ranked list is presented to the user. When a query is submitted to a MSE, decisions are made with respect to the underlying search engines to be used, what modifications will be made to the query and how to score the results. These decisions are typically made by considering only the user’s keyword query, neglecting the larger information need. The cornerstone of their technology is their rank aggregation method. In other words, Result merging is a key component in a MSE. The effectiveness of a MSE is closely related to the result merging algorithm it employs. In this paper, we want to investigate a variety of result merging methods based on a wide range of available information about the retrieved results, from their local ranks, their titles and snippets, to the full documents of these results.


    5.

STUDY OF HAND PREFERENCES ON SIGNATURE FOR RIGHT-HANDED AND    41-46

LEFT-HANDED PEOPLES

 

Akram Gasmelseed and Nasrul Humaimi Mahmood

Abstract
Signature is the easiest way to issue the document. The problem of handwritten signature verification is a pattern recognition task used to differentiate two classes of original and fake signatures. The subject of interest in this study is about signature recognition that deals with the process of verifying the written signature patterns of human individuals and specifically between right-handed and left- handed people. The method that been used in this project is an on-line verification by using IntuosTM Graphics Tablet and Intuos pen as the data capturing device. On-line signature verification involved the capturing of dynamic signature signals such as pressure of pen tips, time duration of whole signature, altitude and azimuth. The ability to capture the signature and have it immediately available in a digital form for verification has opens up a range of new application areas about this topic.


    6.

DESIGN AND SIMULATION OF AN INTELLIGENT TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM    47-57

Osigwe Uchenna Chinyere, Oladipo Onaolapo Francisca, Onibere Emmanuel Amano

Abstract
This paper described our research experiences of building an intelligent system to monitor and control road traffic in a Nigerian city. A hybrid methodology obtained by the crossing of the Structured Systems Analysis and Design Methodology (SSADM) and the Fuzzy-Logic based Design Methodology was deployed to develop and implement the system. Problems were identified with the current traffic control system at the ‘+’ junctions and this necessitated the design and implementation of a new system to solve the problems. The resulting fuzzy logic-based system for traffic control was simulated and tested using a popular intersection in a Nigerian city; notorious for severe traffic logjam. The new system eliminated some of the problems identified in the current traffic monitoring and control systems.

    7.

DESIGN OPTIMIZATION AND SIMULATION OF THE PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS     58-68

ON BUILDINGS IN SOUTHEAST EUROPE

Florin Agai, Nebi Caka, Vjollca Komoni

Abstract
The favourable climate conditions of the Southeast Europe and the recent legislation for the utilization of renewable energy sources provide a substantial incentive for the installation of photovoltaic (PV) systems. In this paper, the simulation of a grid-connected photovoltaic system is presented with the use of the computer software package PVsyst and its performance is evaluated. The performance ratio and the various power losses (temperature, soiling, internal network, power electronics) are calculated. There is also calculated the positive effects on the environment by reducing the release of gases that cause greenhouse effect.

    8.

FAULT LOCATION AND DISTANCE ESTIMATION ON POWER TRANSMISSION    69-76

LINES USING DISCRETE WAVELET TRANSFORM

Sunusi. Sani Adamu, Sada Iliya

Abstract
Fault location is very important in power system engineering in order to clear fault quickly and restore power supply as soon as possible with minimum interruption. In this study a 300km, 330kv, 50Hz power transmission line model was developed and simulated using power system block set of MATLAB to obtain fault current waveforms. The waveforms were analysed using the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) toolbox by selecting suitable wavelet family to obtain the pre-fault and post-fault coefficients for estimating the fault distance. This was achieved by adding non negative values of the coefficients after subtracting the pre-fault coefficients from the post-fault coefficients. It was found that better results of the distance estimation, were achieved using Daubechies ‘db5’wavele,t with an error of three percent (3%).

    9.

AN INVESTIGATION OF THE PRODUCTION LINE FOR ENHANCED PRODUCTION  77-88

USING HEURISTIC METHOD

M. A. Hannan, H.A. Munsur, M. Muhsin

Abstract
Line balancing is the phase of assembly line study that nearly equally divides the works to be done among the workers so that the total number of employees required on the assembly line can be minimized.  As small improvements in the performance of the system can lead to significant monetary consequences, it is of utmost importance to develop practical solution procedures that may yield a significant enhancement in the throughputs of production. Bangladesh Machine Tool Factory (BMTF) was undertaken as a research project which had been incurring loss for a long time at their current production rate. In the course of analysis, a line balancing (LB) technique was employed to have a detail analysis of the line. This paper describes how an efficient heuristic approach was applied to solve the deterministic and single-model ALB problem. The aim of the work was sought as to minimize the number of workstations with minimum cycle time so as to maximize the efficiency of the production line.  The performance level was found so low that there was no way to improve the productivity without any reduction of the idle time from the line curtailing the avoidable delays so far possible. All the required data was measured and the parameters such as elapsed times, efficiencies, number of workers, time of each of the workstations etc. was calculated from the existing line. The same production line was redesigned through rehabilitating & reshuffling the workstations as well as the workers and using the newly estimated time study data, keeping minimum possible idle time at each of the stations. A new heuristic approach, the Longest Operation Time (LOT) method was used in designing the new production line.  After set up of the new production line, the cost of production and effectiveness of the new line was computed and compared with those of the existing one. How much costs could be saved and how much productivity could be increased for the newly designed production line that were estimated and the production was found to have been increased by a significant amount reducing the overall production cost per unit.

    10.

A NOVEL DESIGN FOR ADAPTIVE HARMONIC FILTER TO IMPROVE THE    89-95

PERFORMANCE OF OVER CURRENT RELAYS

A. Abu-Siada

Abstract
Due to the ever-increasing in non linear loads and the worldwide trend to establish smart grids, harmonic level in the electricity grids is significantly increased. In addition to their impact on power quality, harmonic current can have a devastating effect on the operation of over current relays as they are designed to operate efficiently at the fundamental frequency. The distorted waveform will affect the operation of the over current rely and may cause the relay to trip under normal operating conditions. To solve this problem, power passive and active filters are employed to eliminate the harmonics and purify the relay operational signal. Passive filters are not cost effective choice to solve this issue. On the other hand, active filters are more complex and need proper and complicated controller.  This paper introduces a new and simple approach for adaptive filter design. This approach is economic, compact and very effective in eliminating harmonics in the grid. It can be easily attached with any protective relay to improve its performance. Application of this design to improve the performance of over current relays in the IEEE-30 bus system with heavy penetration of non-linear loads is investigated.


    11.

ANUPLACE: A SYNTHESIS AWARE VLSI PLACER TO MINIMIZE TIMING    96-108

CLOSURE

Santeppa Kambham and Krishna Prasad K.S.R

Abstract
In Deep Sub Micron (DSM) technologies, circuits fail to meet the timings estimated during synthesis after completion of the layout which is termed as ‘Timing Closure’ problem. This work focuses on the study of reasons for failure of timing closure for a given synthesis solution. It was found that this failure is due to non-adherence of synthesizer’s assumptions during placement.  A synthesis aware new placer called ANUPLACE was developed which adheres to assumptions made during synthesis. The new algorithms developed are illustrated with an example. ANUPLACE was applied to a set of standard placement benchmark circuits. There was an average improvement of 53.7% in the Half- Perimeter-Wire-Lengths (HPWL) with an average area penalty of 12.6% of the placed circuits when compared to the results obtained by the existing placement   algorithms reported in the literature.


    12.

FUNCTIONAL COVERAGE ANALYSIS OF OVM BASED VERIFICATION OF  109-117

H.264 CAVLD SLICE HEADER DECODER

Akhilesh Kumar and Chandan Kumar

Abstract
Commercial chip design verification is a complex activity involving many abstraction levels (such as architectural, register transfer, gate, switch, circuit, fabrication), many different aspects of design (such as timing, speed, functional, power, reliability and manufacturability) and many different design styles (such as ASIC, full custom, semi-custom, memory, cores, and asynchronous). In this paper, functional coverage analysis of verification of RTL (Register Transfer Level) design of H.264 CAVLD (context-based adaptive variable length decoding) slice header decoder using SystemVerilog implementation of OVM (open verification methodology) is presented. The methodology used for verification is OVM which has gathered very positive press coverage, including awards from magazines and industry organizations. There is no doubt that the OVM is one of the biggest stories in recent EDA (electronic design automation) history. The SystemVerilog language is at the heart of the OVM which inherited features from Verilog HDL, VHDL, C, C++  and adopted by IEEE as hardware description and verification language in 2005. The verification environment developed in OVM provides multiple levels of reuse, both within projects and between projects. Emphasis is put onto the actual usage of the verification components and functional coverage. The whole verification is done using SystemVerilog hardware description and verification language. We are using QuestaSim 6.6b for simulation.

    13.

COMPARISON BETWEEN GRAPH BASED DOCUMENT SUMMARIZATION  118-125

METHOD AND CLUSTERING METHOD

Prashant D.Joshi, S.G.Joshi, M.S.Bewoor, S.H.Patil

Abstract
Document summarization and clustering are two techniques which can be used while accessing text files within short period of time from the computer. In document summarization graph method, document graph of each text file is generated. For creating document graph each paragraph is assumed as one individual node. Node score and Edge score are calculated using mathematical formulas. Input query is applied on the document and according to that summary from the Text file is generated. Clustering ROCK algorithm can also be used for doing the summarization. Here each paragraph is considered as individual cluster and link score between two paragraphs are calculated and on that basis two clusters are merged. Here Input query is applied on the merged clusters as well as individual cluster and accordingly summary is generated. Various results are taken in to consideration and we conclude that Rock algorithm requires less time as compared to other method for document summarization. Clustering ROCK algorithm can be used with standalone machine, LAN, Internet for retrieving text documents with small amount of retrieval time.

    14.

IMPROVED SEARCH ENGINE USING CLUSTER ONTOLOGY  126-132

Gauri Suresh Bhagat, Mrunal S. Bewoor, Suhas Patil

Abstract
Search engine such as Google and yahoo returns a list of web pages that match the user query.  It is very difficult for the user to find relevant web pages. Cluster based search engine can provide significantly more powerful models for searching a user query. Clustering is a process of forming groups (clusters) of similar objects from a given set of inputs. When applied to web search results, clustering can be perceived as a way of organising the results into a number of easily brows able thematic groups. In this paper, we propose a new approach for applying background knowledge during pre-processing in order to improve clustering results and allow for selection between results. We preprocess our input data applying an ontology-based heuristics for feature selection and feature aggregation. The inexperienced users, who may have difficulties in formulating a precise query, can be helped in identifying the actual information of interest. Clustering are readable and unambiguous descriptions (labels) of the thematic groups. They provide the users with an overview of the topics covered in the results and help them identify the specific group of documents they were looking for.

    15.

COMPARISON OF MAXIMUM POWER POINT TRACKING ALGORITHMS FOR       133-148

PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM

J. Surya Kumari, Ch. Sai Babu

Abstract
Photovoltaic systems normally use a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) technique to continuously deliver the highest possible power to the load when variations in the isolation and temperature occur, Photovoltaic (PV) generation is becoming increasingly important as a renewable source since it offers many advantages such as incurring no fuel costs, not being polluting, requiring little maintenance, and emitting no noise, among others. PV modules still have relatively low conversion efficiency; therefore, controlling maximum power point tracking (MPPT) for the solar array is essential in a PV system. The Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) is a technique used in power electronic circuits to extract maximum energy from the Photovoltaic (PV) Systems. In the recent days, PV power generation has gained more importance due its numerous advantages such as fuel free, requires very little maintenance and environmental benefits. To improve the energy efficiency, it is important to operate PV system always at its maximum power point. Many maximum power point  Tracking (MPPT) techniques are available and proposed various methods for obtaining maximum power point. But, among the available techniques sufficient comparative study particularly with variable environmental conditions is not done. This paper is an attempt to study and evaluate two main types of MPPT techniques namely, Open-circuit voltage and Short-circuit current. The detailed comparison of each technique is reported. The SIMULINK simulation results of Open-circuit voltage and Short-circuit current methods with changing radiation and temperature are presented.

    16.

POWER QUALITY DISTURBANCE ON PERFORMANCE OF VECTOR  149-157

CONTROLLED VARIABLE FREQUENCY INDUCTION MOTOR

A. N. Malleswara Rao, K. Ramesh Reddy, B. V. Sanker Ram

Abstract
 Sensitive equipment and non-linear loads are now more common in both the industrial/commercial sectors and the domestic environment. Because of this a heightened awareness of power quality is developing among electricity users. Therefore, power quality is an issue that is becoming increasingly important to electricity consumers at all levels of usage. Continuous variation of single-phase loads on the power system network leads to voltage variation and unbalance, most importantly; the three- phase voltages tend to become asymmetrical. Application of asymmetrical voltages to induction motor driven systems severely affects its working performance. Simulation of an Induction Motor under various voltage sag conditions using Matlab/Simulink is presented in this paper. Variation of input current, speed and output torque for vector controlled variable frequency induction motor-drive is investigated. Simulation results show that the variation of speed and current in motor-drive system basically depends on the size of the dc link capacitor. It is shown that the most reduction of dc-link voltage happens during voltage sag. It is also observed that as the power quality become poor, the motor speed decreases, causing significant rise in power input to meet the rated load demand.

    17.

INTELLIGENT INVERSE KINEMATIC CONTROL OF SCORBOT-ER V PLUS  158-169

ROBOT MANIPULATOR

Himanshu Chaudhary and Rajendra Prasad

Abstract

In this paper, an Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) method based on the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is applied to design an Inverse Kinematic based controller forthe inverse kinematical control of SCORBOT-ER V Plus. The proposed ANFIS controller combines the advantages of a fuzzy controller as well as the quick response and adaptability nature of an Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The ANFIS structures were trained using the generated database by the fuzzy controller of the SCORBOT-ER V Plus.The performance of the proposed system has been compared with the experimental setup prepared with SCORBOT-ER V Plus robot manipulator. Computer Simulation is conducted to demonstrate accuracyof the proposed controller to generate an appropriate joint angle for reaching desired Cartesian state, without any error. The entire system has been modeled using MATLAB 2011.

    18.

FAST AND EFFICIENT METHOD TO ASSESS AND ENHANCE TOTAL  170-180

TRANSFER CAPABILITY IN PRESENCE OF FACTS DEVICE

K. Chandrasekar and N. V. Ramana

Abstract
This paper presents the application of Genetic Algorithm (GA) to assess and enhance Total Transfer Capability (TTC) using Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) devices during power system planning and operation. Conventionally TTC is assessed using Repeated Power Flow (RPF) or Continuation Power Flow (CPF) or Optimal Power Flow (OPF) based methods which normally uses Newton Raphson (NR) method and the enhancement of TTC is done by optimally locating FACTS devices using an optimization algorithm. This increases the CPU time and also limits the search space hence resulting in local optimal value in TTC. To eliminate this drawback, in this paper a novel procedure using the optimization algorithm (GA) is proposed which simultaneously assess and enhance Total Transfer Capability (TTC) in presence of FACTS. Also power flow is performed using Broyden’s method with Sherman Morrison formula instead of NR method, which reduces the CPU time further without compromising the accuracy. To validate the proposed method, simulation test is carried on WSCC 9 bus and IEEE 118 bus test system. Results indicate that the proposed method enhances TTC effectively with higher computational efficacy when compared to that of conventional method.

    19.

ISSUES IN CACHING TECHNIQUES TO IMPROVE SYSTEM PERFORMANCE  181-188

IN CHIP MULTIPROCESSORS

H. R. Deshmukh, G. R. Bamnote

Abstract
As cache management in chip multiprocessors has become more critical because of the diverse workloads, increasing working sets of many emerging applications, increasing memory latency and decreasing size of cache devoted to each core due to increased number of cores on a single chip in Chip multiprocessors (CMPs). This paper identifies caching techniques and important issues in caching techniques in chip multiprocessor for managing last level cache to reduce off chip access to improve the system performance under critical conditions and suggests some future directions to address the identified issues.

    20.

KANNADA TEXT EXTRACTION FROM IMAGES AND VIDEOS FORVISION  189-196

IMPAIRED PERSONS

Keshava Prasanna, Ramakhanth Kumar P, Thungamani.M, Manohar Koli

Abstract
We propose a system that reads the Kannada text encountered in natural scenes with the aim to provide assistance to the visually impaired persons of Karnataka state. This paper describes the system design and standard deviation based Kannada text extraction method. The proposed system contain three main stages text extraction, text recognition and speech synthesis. This paper concentrated on text extraction from images/videos. In this paper: an efficient algorithm which can automatically detect, localize and extract Kannada text from images (and digital videos) with complex backgrounds is presented. The proposed approach is based on the application of a color reduction technique, a standard deviation base method for edge detection, and the localization of text regions using new connected component properties. The outputs of the algorithm are text boxes with a simple background, ready tobe fed into an OCR engine for subsequent character recognition. Our proposal is robust with respect to different font sizes, font colors, orientation, alignment and background complexities. The performance of the approach is demonstrated by presenting promising experimental results for a set of images taken from different types of video sequences.

    21.

COVERAGE ANALYSIS IN VERIFICATION OF TOTAL ZERO DECODER OF  197-203

H.264 CAVLD

Akhilesh Kumar and Mahesh Kumar Jha

Abstract
H.264 video standard is used to achieve high quality video and  high data compression when compared to other existing video standards. H.264 uses context-based adaptive variable length coding (CAVLC) to code residual data in Baseline profile.The H.264 bitstream consist of zeros and ones.At one of the decoding stages of context-based adptive variable length decoder (CAVLD), Total Zeros decoder is used to calculate the total zeros, which is the number of zeros before the last non- zero coefficient.H.264 specifies different lookup table to decode total zero, which is chosen depending on the number of non zero coefficients.In this paper the coverage analysis in verification of Total Zeros decoder of the CAVLD ASIC using open verification methodology (OVM) is proposed.

    22.

DESIGN AND CONTROL OF VOLTAGE REGULATORS FOR WIND DRIVEN  204-217

SELF EXCITED INDUCTION GENERATOR

Swati Devabhaktuni and S. V. Jayaram Kumar

Abstract
This paper deals with the performance analysis of static compensator (STATCOM) based voltage regulator for self excited induction generators (SEIGs) supplying balanced/unbalanced and linear/non linear loads. A three-phase insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) based current controlled voltage source inverter (CC-VSI) known as STATCOM is used for harmonic elimination. It also provides the required reactive power SEIG needs to maintain a constant terminal voltage under varying loads. A set of voltage regulators are designed and their performance is simulated using SIMULINK to demonstrate their capabilities as a voltage regulator, a harmonic eliminator, a load balancer and a neutral current compensator. It also discusses the merits and demerits, to select a suitable topology of the voltage regulator according to self excited induction generator. The simulated results show that by using a STATCOM based voltage regulator the SEIG terminal voltage can be maintained constant and free from harmonics under linear/non linear and balanced/unbalanced loads.

    23.

LITERATURE REVIEW OF FIBER REINFORCED POLYMER COMPOSITES  218-226

Shivakumar S, G. S. Guggari

Abstract
Polymer-matrix composites (PMCs) have been used for a variety of structural memberships for chemical plants and airplanes, since they have outstanding performances, such as lightweight and good fatigue properties. To hold the long-term durability and to estimate the residual life of the composites under some hostile environments, it is an important issue to clarify the facture and/or the failure mechanism in each service conditions. Degradation of components made from polymeric materials occurs in a wide variety of environments and service conditions, and very often limits the service lifetime. Degradation occurs as the result of environment-dependent chemical or physical attack, often caused by a combination of degradation agents, and may involve several chemical and mechanical mechanisms. The main concern of this review will be to examine the causes of degradation of polymeric components from the completion of fabrication to ultimate failure.

    24.

IMPLEMENTATION RESULTS OF SEARCH PHOTO AND TOPOGRAPHIC  227-235

INFORMATION RETRIEVAL AT A LOCATION

Sukhwant Kaur, Sandhya Pati, Trupti Lotlikar, Cheryl R, Jagdish T., Abhijeet D.

Abstract


Tourism is the strongest and largest industry in the global economy. It has played a significant role in boosting the city's economy and social employment. There has been a large increase in the number of people out on tours, for the sake of recreation and entertainment. In the traditional tourism industry, tourist information is obtained mainly through newspaper, magazines, friends and other simple ways. . Such traditional sources are user-friendly but, they have some serious limitations. First, the suggestions from friends are limited to those places they have visited before. Second, the information from travel agencies is sometime biased since agents tend to recommend businesses they are associated with. Moreover, information available from the Internet is too overwhelming and the users have to spend a long time finding those that they are interested in. Thus, trying to eliminate this difficulty SPATIAL employs geo-tagged images to show the interesting scenes of different places. Detailed texts, images, paths and other guidance information are provided, so people can better understand the tourist attractions and make their decision objectively. In this paper, we present the successful implementation of a photo and topographic information search. A user can provide a desired keyword describing the place of interest, and the system will look into its database for places that share the visual characteristics. One can select two locations on the map; the latitude, longitude of the selected area, the path and the distance between the two places would appear. Then from the multiple paths, user can select either path and images of famous places would be displayed.  These images are broadly classified into categories such as holy places, universities, historical monuments, nature-driven places and wildlife. One can also see the detailed information of the selected place as well as of the selected image.


    25.

QUALITY ASSURANCE EVALUATION FOR PROGRAMS USING  236-247

MATHEMATICAL MODELS

Murtadha M. Hamad and Shumos T.  Hammadi

Abstract
The purpose of this paper based on comprehensive quality standards that have been developed for program measurements. This paper adopted four measures to evaluate program performance (time complexity, reliability, modularity and documentary) evaluate ??on the basis of performance, these measures are based on mathematical models to evaluate the program
These measures applied on a sample of texts file that contain programs written in C++, so that was formed texts file that contain program to be evaluated  Analyzed the data obtained by using the algorithms proposed evaluation, which relied primarily on mathematical analysis, using mathematical functions to evaluate each program. C# was used as an environment in which software applied program evaluation. The results showed that the assessment depends on the structure and method of writing program.

    26.

NEAR SET AN APPROACH AHEAD TO ROUGH SET: AN OVERVIEW  248-253

Kavita R Singh, Shivanshu Singh

Abstract
Rough Set Theory is a fairly new concept that has found applications to various soft computing techniques. It offers a set theory approach to manage the uncertainty in data systems. It has been used for the discovery of data dependencies, importance of features, patterns in sample data, feature space dimensionality reduction, and the classification of objects. Objects can be classified by means of their attributes when considered in the context of an approximation space. The Near Sets represent a generalization of Rough Sets. It presents a nearness approach to classifying objects. In this paper we present an overview of basics of rough sets and near sets along with their application to face recognition problem.

    27.

MEASUREMENT OF CARBONYL EMISSIONS FROM EXHAUST OF ENGINES  254-266

FUELLED USING BIODIESEL-ETHANOL-DIESEL BLEND AND DEVELOPMENT

OF A CATALYTIC CONVERTER FOR THEIR MITIGATION ALONG WITH CO, HC’S

AND NOX.

Abhishek B. Sahasrabudhe, Sahil S. Notani, Tejaswini M. Purohit, Tushar U. Patil and

Satishchandra V. Joshi

Abstract
The research work is divided into (1) a portable sample collection technique (2) developing a suitable catalyst combination and (3) manufacturing a catalytic converter with novel design. Taking into account the hazards of aldehydes in ambient air, and carbonyl emissions compounds, an effort has been made to investigate the carbonyl compounds and measure their concentrations for diesel engines using Bio Ethanol (BE)-diesel fuel. From the said analysis, development of a potential catalytic converter is envisioned in order to reduce these emissions along with carbon monoxides, hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides. Catalytic converter is specially manufactured for reduction of carbonyl emissions from the BE-diesel fuelled engine and its comparison and its integration with conventional three way catalysts is discussed. The retention time of the raw sample peak is comparable to the retention time of formaldehyde standard solution. Solitary formaldehyde peak is obtained. Peaks of acetaldehyde and acetone are not obtained due to their lower concentrations than the limit of detection, at the given loading condition. Retention time of each arrangement is close to that of formaldehyde standard. It is observed that CO, HC and NOx conversion efficiencies remained constant irrespective of combination with specially designed ZrO2 catalyst. Formaldehyde concentration obtained for one ZrO2 catalyst sample is significantly lower than raw emissions. Added ZrO2 catalyst showed further reduction. Thus, with optimum loading and surface area improvement methods, better results are achievable. Pt-Rh catalyst shows better carbonyl reduction than Pd-Rh catalyst. However, each of the three way catalysts is less efficient than ZrO2 catalyst. ZrO2 catalyst used in series with Pt-Rh catalyst shows the highest percentage reduction in formaldehyde concentration. Pt-Rh catalyst pair is effective in CO mitigation than Pd-Rh pair. The percentage reduction for HC and NOx is comparable for both. Pt-Rh also depicts better carbonyl reduction ability. ZrO2 is a better choice than noble metals in terms of availability and cost. Moreover it features a selective nature towards oxidation of aldehydes. Thus, Pt-Rh in combination with ZrO2 becomes technologically effective and economically viable choice.

    28.

IMPACT OF REFRIGERANT CHARGE OVER THE PERFORMANCE  267-277

CHARACTERISTICS OF A SIMPLE VAPOUR COMPRESSION REFRIGERATION SYSTEM

J. K. Dabas, A. K. Dodeja, Sudhir Kumar, K. S. Kasana

Abstract

Experimental investigation was done to find the role of capillary tube length and amount of refrigerant charge on the overall heat transfer coefficient in condenser and evaporator and actual COP of a simple vapour compression refrigeration system. It was concluded that increasing of the refrigerant charge in the system largely enhances the overall heat transfer coefficient in the evaporator by increasing the part of space occupied by liquid refrigerant in the evaporator.  Capillary tube length is important as it decides the evaporator temperature and pressure directly but also affects the tendency of refilling of evaporator with liquid refrigerant after initial start up and alters the amount of optimum charge in the system.  A simple refrigeration system should be designed with minimum possible length of capillary tube to satisfy the refrigeration conditions and maximum amount of refrigerant charged in the system limited by unwanted condition of refrigerant liquid entering the compressor.

    29.

AGC CONTROLLERS TO OPTIMIZE LFC REGULATION IN DEREGULATED  278-289

POWER SYSTEM

S.Farook, P. Sangameswara Raju

Abstract
This paper presents the  AGC controllers to regulate the system frequency and to regulate the power generation of various GENCOs at scheduled levels in a deregulated power system by optimizing the parameters of controller using Evolutionary Real coded genetic algorithm (RCGA). The performance of the controller is investigated on a two-area interconnected power system consisting of Hydro-Thermal unit in one area and Thermal-Gas unit in the second area. The main goal of the optimization method is to improve the dynamics of LFC such as improving of the transient response of frequency and tie- line power oscillations and to optimizing the Power generated by various GENCOs according to the bilateral contracts scheduled between GENCOs and DISCOs in an interconnected multi-area deregulated power system. In the present paper the optimal feedback controller and a proportional- integral-derivative controller were used. The simulation results show the PID controller tuned by the proposed algorithm exhibits improved dynamic performance over optimally tuned Feedback controller.

    30.

AUTOMATIC DIFFERENTIATION BETWEEN RBC AND MALARIAL PARASITES  290-297

BASED ON MORPHOLOGY WITH FIRST ORDER FEATURES USING IMAGE

PROCESSING

Jigyasha Soni, Nipun Mishra, Chandrashekhar Kamargaonkar

Abstract
Malaria is the most important parasite infection of human and is associated with a huge burden of morbidity and mortality in many parts of tropical world. The world health organization estimates 300- 500 million malaria cases and more than 1 million deaths per year. The definitive diagnosis of malaria infection is done by searching for parasites in blood slides (films) through a microscope .However; this is a routine and time consuming task. Besides a recent study on the field shows the agreements rates among the clinical experts for the diagnosis are surprisingly low. Hence, it is very important to produce a common standard tool which is able to perform diagnosis with same ground criteria uniformly everywhere. Techniques have been proposed earlier that makes use of thresholding or morphology or segment an image .Here I have presented a technique that takes benefits of morphological operation and thresholding at appropriate position in the hole process to maximize the productivity of algorithm and differentiate between the simple RBC and malaria parasite. An approach presenting here to detect red blood cells with consecutive classification into parasite infected and uninfected cells for estimation of parasitaemia.

    31.

REAL ESTATE APPLICATION USING SPATIAL DATABASE  298-309

M. Kiruthika, Smita Dange, Swati Kinhekar, Girish B, Trupti G, Sushant R.

Abstract
Real estate can be defined as rights andimprovementsto own or use land. Most of the real estate applications provide the features such as specification based searching, agent notification, adding property for sale, loan informationetc.according   to some specifications. This paper presents a system which will have all the features of real estate application but using spatial databases, thus incorporating with it the flexibility and strength provided by the Spatial Databases.

    32.

DESIGN AND VERIFICATION ANALYSIS OF APB3 PROTOCOL WITH  310-317

COVERAGE

Akhilesh Kumar and Richa Sinha

Abstract
Today in the era of modern technology micro electronics play a very vital role in every aspects of life of an individual, increasing use for micro electronics equipments increases the demand for manufacturing  its  components  and  its  availability,  reducing  its  manufacturing  time, resulting  in increasing  the  failure  rate  of  the  finished  product.  In  order  to  overcome  this problem  the Technocrats  develop  a method  called Verification,  a process which  is  a part  of manufacturing microelectronics  products. So approximately 30% of the effort spent on the average project is consumed by design and 70% in verification.  For this reason, methods which improve the efficiency and accuracy of hardware design and verification are immensely valuable. The current VLSI design scenario is characterised by high performance, complex functionality and short time-to-market. A reuse based methodology for SoC design has become essential in order to meet these challenges. The work embodied in this paper presents the design of APB 3 Protocol and the Verification of slave APB 3 Protocol. Coverage analysis is a vital part of the verification process; it gives idea  that to what degree the source code of the DUT has been tested. The Functional coverage analysis increases the verification efficiency enabling the verification engineer to isolate the areas of un-tested function. The design and verification IP is built by developing verification components using Verilog and System Verilog respectfully with relevant tools such as Rivera, which provides the suitable building blocks to design the test environment
.

    33.

IMPLEMENTATION OF GPS ENABLED CAR POOLING SYSTEM  318-328

Smita Rukhande, Prachi G, Archana S, Dipa D.

Abstract
Carpooling commonly known as car-sharing or ride-sharing is a concept in which commuters share a car while travelling. Participants in carpooling share journey expenses such as fuel, tolls etc. which reduces the expenses incurred on each participant. Carpooling helps to cut down traffic on the roads, carbon emissions and overall parking space required, hence proving to be environmental friendly. The application discussed in this paper is a mobile client using J2ME which allows it to work on any java enabled phone having GPRS connection. Thus, Car pooling using GPS is a real time mobile based application that mainly aims at facilitating car pooling amongst travelers. It allows users to book their journey with a person travelling on the same route beforehand. It allows users to locate their travel partners on the map displayed on their mobile screen and accordingly make changes in their itinerary.Implementation of the system is discussed in the paperwith help of the results.

    34.

APPLICATION OF MATHEMATICAL MORPHOLOGY FOR THE  329-336

ENHANCEMENT OF MICROARRAY IMAGES

Nagaraja J, Manjunath S.S, Lalitha Rangarajan, Harish Kumar N.

Abstract
DNA microarray technology has promised a very accelerating research inclination in recent years. There are numerous applications of this technology, including clinical diagnosis and treatment, drug design and discovery, tumour detection, and in the environmental health research.  Enhancement is the major pre-processing step in microarray image analysis. Microarray images when corrupted with noise may drastically affect the subsequent stages of image analysis and finally affects gene expression profile. In this paper a fully automatic technique to enhance microarray images is presented using mathematical morphology. Experiments on Stanford and TBDB illustrate robustness of the proposed approach in the presence of noise, artifacts and weakly expressed spots. Experimental results and analysis illustrates the performance of the proposed method with the contemporary methods discussed in the literature.

    35.

SECURING DATA IN AD HOC NETWORKS USING MULTIPATH ROUTING  337-341

R.Vidhya and G. P. Ramesh Kumar

Abstract
Development of handheld features and mobile telephony makes Ad hoc networks widely adopted, but security remains a complicated issue. Recently, there are several proposed solutions treating authentication, availability, secure routing and intrusion detection etc, in Ad hoc networks. In this paper we introduce a securing data protocol in Ad hoc networks, SDMP protocol. This solution increases the robustness of transmitted data confidentiality by exploiting the existence of multiple paths between nodes in an Ad hoc network. This paper also includes an overview of current solutions and vulnerabilities and attacks in Ad hoc networks.

    36.

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF DIFFERENT SENSE AMPLIFIERS IN  342-350

SUBMICRON CMOS TECHNOLOGY

Sampath Kumar, Sanjay Kr Singh, Arti Noor, D. S. Chauhan & B.K. Kaushik

Abstract
 A comparison of different sense amplifiers are presented in consideration of SRAM memories using 250nm and 180nm technology. The sensing delay-time for different capacitance values of the bit line and for different values of power supply results are given by considering worst case process corners and high temperatures. The effect of various design parameters on the different sense amplifiers has been discussed and reported.

    37.

CHARACTER RECOGNITION AND TRANSMISSION OF CHARACTERS USING  351-360

NETWORK SECURITY

Subhash Tatale and Akhil Khare

Abstract
This paper deals with character recognition of characters of vehicle number plate and these recognized characters are transmitted through secure network channel by using encryption & decryption techniques. This paper includes implementation of automatic number plate recognition, which ensures a process of number plate detection, processes of proper characters segmentation, normalization and recognition also it explains the implementation of respective algorithms. Automatic Number Plate Recognition is a real time embedded system which automatically recognizes the license number of vehicles. In this paper, the implementation of recognizing number plate is considered. After recognizing the characters from number plate by implementing by various algorithms, the characters are transmitted through secure Channel. For Secure transmission of recognized characters i.e. vehicle number, Steganography techniques are used. First recognized characters are embedded into image and that data is encrypted by using private key at sender’s end. At the receiving end, the data is extracted from the image by using decryption technique.

    38.

IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF SHG LOAN PATTERN USING CLUSTERING  361-374

TECHNIQUE

Sajeev B. U, K. Thankavel

Abstract
Indian micro-finance sector, dominated by self help groups (SHGs), addresses issues like actualizing equitable gains from the development and fighting poverty. A number of financial institutions provide micro-finance services to the poor through banking and NGOs. Clustering analysis is a key and easy tool in data mining and pattern recognition. We have applied K-Means and Fuzzy C-Means algorithms to study in detail the data’s collected from the SHG members of 9 districts in Kerala state through field work and questionnaire.  The study reveals that the average range of rate of interest of SHG loans from various government agencies are from 12 to 15 %.  Out of total members availing loans, 56% are taking loan from bank. District wise studies on the rate of interest were also carried out. Study on the relationship of education and savings among SHG members’ shows that members with higher education shows increased saving habits.

    39.

CASCADED HYBRID FIVE-LEVEL INVERTER WITH DUAL CARRIER PWM  375-386

CONTROL SCHEME FOR PV SYSTEM

R. Seyezhai

Abstract
Cascaded Hybrid MultiLevel Inverter (CHMLI) is an attractive topology for high voltage DC-AC conversion. This paper focuses on a    single-phase five-level inverter with reduced number of switches. The inverter consists of a full bridge inverter and an auxiliary circuit with four diodes and   a switch. The inverter produces output voltage in five levels: zero, +0.5Vdc, +Vdc, -0.5Vdc and –Vdc.. A novel dual reference modulation technique has been proposed for the CMLI. The dual carrier modulation technique uses two identical inverted sine carrier signals each with amplitude exactly half of the amplitude of the sinusoidal reference signal to generate PWM signals for the switches.
Using Perturb and Observe (P&O) algorithm, Maximum Power Point (MPPT) has been tracked for PV inverter. A Proportional Integral (PI) control algorithm is implemented to improve the dynamic response of the inverter. Performance evaluation of the proposed PWM strategy for Multilevel Inverter (MLI) has been carried out using MATLAB and it is observed that it gives reduced Total Harmonic Distortion (THD). An experimental five-level hybrid inverter test rig has been built   to implement the proposed algorithm. Gating signals are generated using PIC microcontroller. The performance of the inverter has been analyzed and compared with the result obtained from theory and simulation.

    40.

A REVIEW ON: DYNAMIC LINK BASED RANKING  387-393

D Nagamalleswary , A. Ramana Lakshmi

Abstract
Dynamic authority-based ranking methods such as personalized PageRank and ObjectRank. Since they dynamically rank nodes in a data graph using an expensive matrix-multiplication method, the online execution time rapidly increases as the size of data graph grows.  ObjectRank spends 20-40 seconds to compute query-specific relevance scores, which is unacceptable. We introduce a novel approach, BinRank, that approximates dynamic link-based ranking scores efficiently. BinRank partitions a dictionary into bins of relevant keywords and then constructs materialized subgraphs (MSGs) per bin in preprocessing stage. In query time, to produce highly accurate top-K results efficiently, BinRank uses the MSG corresponding to the given keyword, instead of the original data graph. In this project, a BinRank system that employs a hybrid approach where query time can be traded off for preprocessing time and storage. BinRank closely approximates ObjectRank scores by running the same ObjectRank algorithm on a small subgraph, instead of the full data graph.

    41.

MODELING AND SIMULATION OF A SINGLE PHASE PHOTOVOLTAIC  394-400

INVERTER AND INVESTIGATION OF SWITCHING STRATEGIES FOR HARMONIC

MINIMIZATION

B. Nagaraju, K. Prakash

Abstract
The aim of this paper is to build an EMTDC model of a single phase photovoltaic inverter and to investigate switching strategies for harmonic minimization. For the simulation of this model, the PSCAD/EMTDC software package was used and the waveforms of interest were taken for further examination and discussion ïn the performance of the model. Á low rating, mains connected device was designed and was later used to demonstrate that real and reactive power can flow in the desired direction just by changing the phase shift or the voltage magnitude. The inverter device is intended for domestic use and will allow users to exploit voltage from photovoltaic cells. This a.c. converted voltage will be useful for feeding small house appliances or by employing appropriate techniques, real and reactive power exported from the inverter can reinforce the main power stream in the “Distribution Grid”.

    42.

ENHANCEMENT OF POWER TRANSMISSION CAPABILITY OF HVDC  401-416

SYSTEM USING FACTS CONTROLLERS

M. Ramesh, A. Jaya Laxmi

Abstract
The necessity to deliver cost effective energy in the power market has become a major concern in this emerging technology era. Therefore, establishing a desired power condition at the given points are best achieved using power controllers such as the well known High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) and Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) devices.
High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) is used to transmit large amounts of power over long distances. The factors to be considered are Cost, Technical Performance and Reliability. A Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) is a system composed of static equipment used for the AC transmission of electrical energy. It is meant to enhance controllability and increase power transfer capability of the network. It is generally a power electronics-based system. A Unified Power Flow Controller (or UPFC) is a FACTS device for providing fast-acting reactive power compensation on high-voltage electricity transmission networks. The UPFC is a versatile controller which can be used to control active and reactive power flows in a transmission line. The focus of this paper is to identify the improved Power Transmission Capability through control scheme and comprehensive analysis for a Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) on the basis of theory, computer simulation. The conventional control scheme cannot attenuate the power fluctuation, and so the time constant of damping is independent of active- and reactive-power feedback gains integrated in its control circuit. The model was analyzed for different types of faults    at different  locations, keeping the location of UPFC fixed at the receiving end of the line, With the addition of UPFC, the magnitude of fault current and oscillations of excitation voltage reduces. Series and Shunt parts of UPFC provide series and shunt injected voltage at certain different angles.

    43.

EIGEN VALUES OF SOME CLASS OF STRUCTURAL MATRICES THAT SHIFT  417-421

ALONG THE GERSCHGORIN CIRCLE ON THE REAL AXIS

T. D. Roopamala and S. K. Katti

Abstract
In this paper, we have presented a simple approach for determining eigenvalues for some class of structural matrices. It has been shown that if all the principle diagonal elements of the given structural matrices are increased by ± e , it is as good as the Gerschgorin circle drawn for the given matrix is shifted by ± e  amount with respect to the origin. The main advantage of the proposed method is that there is need to use time-consuming iterative numerical technique for determining the eigenvalues. The proposed approach is expected to be applicable in various computer sciences like Pattern Recognition, Face Recognition identification of geometrical figures and also in control system application for obtaining the stability of the system.

    44.

TYRE PRESSURE MONITORING AND COMMUNICATING ANTENNA IN THE  422-428

VEHICULAR SYSTEMS

K. Balaji, B. T. P. Madhav, P. Syam Sundar, P. Rakesh Kumar, N. Nikhita,

A. Prudhvi Raj, M. Mahidhar

Abstract
Modern vehicles are coming with advanced gadgets and luxurious inbuilt devices. Satellite audio radio communication devices, Tyre pressure monitoring systems, accident avoidance systems, weather reports, route maps etc.  Tyre pressure monitoring system gives the indication and assurance to the driver that the Tyres are operating at their expectations. The vehicle handling characteristics will be affected if the Tyre pressure is low and which may causes the accidents. The Tyre pressure monitoring system with the support of antenna, sensor, control unit and indicators will help the driver to know the condition of the Tyre instantly and avoid so many problems and issues related to this. The radio transmitters with the help of sensors will provide the alarm or any indication to the driver regarding the Tyre pressure. This present paper carries the design and simulation of compact patch antenna for the communication purpose related to these things. The complete simulation of the antenna is carried out by HFSS.

    45.

DEEP SUB-MICRON SRAM DESIGN FOR DRV ANALYSIS AND LOW  429-436

LEAKAGE

Sanjay Kr Singh, Sampath Kumar, Arti Noor, D. S. Chauhan & B.K.Kaushik

Abstract
This paper deals with the design opportunities of Static Random Access Memory (SRAM) for lower power consumption and propagation delay. Initially the existing SRAM architectures are investigated, and thereafter a suitable basic 6T SRAM structure is chosen. The key to low power dissipation in the SRAM data path is to reduce the signal swings on the highly capacitive nodes like the bit and data lines. While designing the SRAM, techniques such as circuit partitioning, divide word line and low power layout methodologies are reviewed to minimize the power dissipation.

    46.

SAG/SWELL MIGRATION USING MULTI CONVERTER UNIFIED POWER  437-440

QUALITY CONDITIONER

SaiRam.I, Amarnadh.J, K. K. Vasishta Kumar

Abstract
This  paper  presents  a  new  unified  power-quality  conditioning  system  (MC-UPQC),  capable  of simultaneous compensation for voltage and current in multibus/multifeeder systems. In this configuration,  one shunt voltage-source converter (shunt VSC) and two or more series VSCs exist. The system can be applied to adjacent feeders to compensate for supply-voltage and load current imperfections on the main feeder and full compensation of supply voltage imperfections on the other feeders. In the proposed configuration, all converters are connected back to back on the dc side and share a common dc-link capacitor. Therefore, power can be transferred from one feeder to adjacent feeders to compensate for sag/swell and interruption. The performance of the proposed configuration has been verified through simulation studies using  MATLAB/SIMULATION on a  two-bus/two-feeder system and results are presented.

    47.

A NOVEL CLUSTERING APPROACH FOR EXTENDING THE LIFETIME FOR  441-446

WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

Puneet Azad, Brahmjit Singh, Vidushi Sharma

Abstract

A new energy efficient clustering algorithm based on the highest residual energy is proposed to improve the lifetime of wireless sensor network (WSN). In each cycle, a fixed number of cluster heads are selected based on maximum residual energy of the nodes. Each cluster head is associated with a group of nodes based on the minimum distance among them. In such scheduling, all the nodes dissipate uniform energy and subsequently remain alive for long time. The simulation results show that our proposed clustering approach is more effective in prolonging the network lifetime compared with the existing protocols such as Low-energy adaptive clustering hierarchy (LEACH) and Distributed hierarchical agglomerative clustering (DHAC).

    48.

SOLAR HEATING IN FOOD PROCESSING  447-453

N. V. Vader and M. M. Dixit

Abstract
In conventional method of food processing, hot air (thermal energy) is being used to dry the food products such as grapes, fish, banana etc. by using fuels like kerosene, fire- wood, diesel, electricity. High moisture content is one of the reasons for food spoilage during storage and preservation. The conventional methods of heating though are popular but have some problems. Solar air heating system makes maximum use of air heating potential of sunlight. Special solar heat absorber is used for food processing applications by absorbing the heat and using for hot air generation. Solar collector like parabolic dish, solar shuffler system can be used. The trials carried out with parabolic systems show not only fuel saving but also great value addition because of better quality of product in terms of color, aroma and taste.

    49.

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF METHANOL -GASOLINE,  454-461

ETHANOL-GASOLINE AND N-BUTANOL-GASOLINE BLENDS ON THE PERFORMANCE

OF 2-STROKE PETROL ENGINE

Viral K Pandya, Shailesh N Chaudhary, Bakul T Patel, Parth D Patel

Abstract
This experimental study investigates the effect of using unleaded gasoline and alcohol as additives blends on spark ignition engine (SI engine) performance. Two strokes, single cylinder SI engine were used for conducting this study. Performance tests were conducted for fuel consumption, brake thermal efficiency, brake power, engine power, indicated thermal efficiency and brake specific fuel consumption using unleaded gasoline and additives blends with different percentages of alcohol at varying engine load condition and at constant engine speed. The result showed that blending unleaded gasoline with additives increases the brake power, indicated and brake thermal efficiencies, fuel consumption and mechanical efficiency. The addition of 5% methanol, 5% ethanol and 5%n- butanol to gasoline gave the best results for all measured parameters at all engine torque/power values.

    50.

IMPLEMENTATION OF MOBILE BROADCASTING USING BLUETOOTH/3G  462-472

Dipa Dixit, Dimple Bajaj and Swati Patil

Abstract

Mobile-PC Multimedia broadcasting aims at developing an application which mainly focuses on image and video live streaming from mobile to desktops/laptops using 3G technology and Bluetooth. Bluetooth is used for one-to-one connection (i.e. from mobile to PC) and 3G is used for one-to-many connections (i.e. from mobile to many PCs and/or other mobile handsets). The Mobile-to-PC solution offers a new level of 3G service to both enterprise and consumer markets. This application can also be used as an in-built feature in mobile phones for entertainment purposes. Paper focuses on the architecture and implementation of broadcasting of images and video live streaming to desktop or laptop using Bluetooth/3G technology.

    51.

IMPROVED DIRECT TORQUE CONTROL OF INDUCTION MOTOR USING  473-479

FUZZY LOGIC BASED DUTY RATIO CONTROLLER

Sudheer H, Kodad S.F and Sarvesh B.

Abstract
Classical DTC has inherent disadvantages such as: problems during starting resulting from the null states, the compulsory requirement of torque and flux estimators, and torque ripple. In this paper the improved response of the DTC is achieved by varying the duty ratio of the selected voltage vector during each switching period according to the magnitude of the torque error and position of the stator flux using Fuzzy logic. A duty ratio control scheme for an inverter-fed induction machine using DTC method is presented in this paper. Fuzzy logic control is used to implement the duty ratio controller. The effectiveness of the duty ratio method was verified by simulation using Matlab SIMULINK.

    52.

INFLUENCE OF ALUMINUM AND TITANIUM ADDITION ON MECHANICAL  480-491

PROPERTIES OF AISI 430 FERRITIC STAINLESS STEEL GTA WELDS

G.Mallaiah, A.Kumar and P. Ravinder Reddy

Abstract
 An attempt has been made to study the influence of grain refining elements such as aluminium (Al) and titanium (Ti) on mechanical properties of AISI 430 ferritic stainless steel welds through gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process. Aluminium(Al) and titanium(Ti) powders of -100µm mesh  was added in the range from 1g to 3g between the butt joint  of ferritic stainless steel . The effect of post- weld  annealing at 830°c,30min holding followed by water quenching on microstructure and mechanical properties of AISI 430 ferritic stainless steel welds was also studied. From this investigation, it is observed that the joints fabricated by the addition of 2g Al (2.4 wt %) and 2g Ti (0.7 wt %) led to improved strength and ductility compared to all other joints. The observed mechanical properties have been correlated with the microstructure and fracture features.

    53.

ANOMALY DETECTION ON USER BROWSING BEHAVIORS FOR  492-499

PREVENTION APP_DDOS

Vidya Jadhav and Prakash Devale

Abstract
Some of the hardest to mitigate distributed denial of service attacks (DDoS) are ones targeting the application layer. Over the time, researchers proposed many solutions to prevent denial of service attacks (DDoS) from IP and TCP layers instead of the application layer. New application Layer based DDoS attacks utilizing legitimate HTTP requests to overwhelm victim resources are more undetectable. This may be more serious when such attacks mimic or occur during the flash crowd event of the website. This paper present a new application  layer anomaly detection and filtering based on Web user browsing behavior for create defense against Distributed Denial of Service Attack(DDoS). Based on hyperlink characteristics such as request sequences of web pages. This paper, uses a large scale Hidden Semi Markov Model (HsMM) to describe the web access behavior and online implementation of model based observation sequence on user browsing behavior fitting to the model measure of user’s normality.

    54.

DESIGN OF LOW POWER LOW NOISE BIQUAD GIC NOTCH FILTER  500-506

IN 0.18 µM CMOS TECHNOLOGY
Akhilesh kumar, Bhanu Pratap Singh Dohare  and  Jyoti Athiya

Abstract
In design of analog circuits not only the gain and speed are important but power dissipation, supply voltage, linearity, noise and maximum voltage swing are also important. In this paper a biquad GIC notch filter is design which provides low power. In this research, the design and VLSI implementation of active analog filter, based on the Generalized Impedance Converter (GIC) circuit, are presented [1]. The circuit is then modeled and simulated using the Cadence Design Tools software package. Active filters are implemented using a combination of passive and active (amplifying) components, and require an outside power source. Operational amplifiers are frequently used in active filter designs. These can have high Q factor, and can achieve resonance without the use of inductors. This paper presents a new biquad GIC notch filter topology for image rejection in heterodyne receivers and Front End receiver applications. The circuit contains two op-amp, resistor, capacitor topology for testing purposes. It is implemented with standard CMOS 0.18ìm technology. The circuit consumes 0.54 mW of power with a open loop gain 0dB, 1 dB compression point the linear gain obtained +7.5dBm at 1.1 kHz and 105 degree phase response  from a 1.8V power supply optimum [2].

 
Article #    Article Title, Authors & Abstract (Vol. 1, Iss. 5, Nov-2011)           Pages

To download full Volume CLICK HERE

Best Reviewers for this Issue are:

    1.

Dr. Sukumar Senthilkumar

    2.

Dr. Tang Aihong

    3.

Dr. Rajeev Singh

    4.

Dr. Om Prakash Singh

    5.

Dr. V. Sundarapandian

    6.

Dr. Ahmad Faridz Abdul Ghafar

    7.

Ms. G Loshma

    8.

Mr. Brijesh Kumar

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